Difference between revisions of "WordPress"

From Indie IT Wiki
Line 1,743: Line 1,743:
== PLUGIN: Yoast SEO ==
== PLUGIN: Yoast SEO ==
=== Use wp-cli ===
wp yoast index
Indexing posts  100% [==============================] 0:00 / 0:00
Indexing terms  100% [==============================] 0:00 / 0:00
Indexing post type archives  100% [=================] 0:00 / 0:00
Indexing general objects  100% [====================] 0:00 / 0:00
To reset the index database, use this command ...
  wp yoast index --reindex
=== Fix Incorrect URL On Breadcrumbs Links After Site Move ===
=== Fix Incorrect URL On Breadcrumbs Links After Site Move ===

Revision as of 15:37, 2 December 2021

SSL When Using A Reverse Proxy

If WordPress is hosted behind a reverse proxy that provides SSL, but is hosted itself without SSL, these options will initially send any requests into an infinite redirect loop. To avoid this, you may configure WordPress to recognize the HTTP_X_FORWARDED_PROTO header (assuming you have properly configured the reverse proxy to set that header).

define('FORCE_SSL_ADMIN', true);
// in some setups HTTP_X_FORWARDED_PROTO might contain
// a comma-separated list e.g. http,https
// so check for https existence
if (strpos($_SERVER['HTTP_X_FORWARDED_PROTO'], 'https') !== false)


Enable Theme Editor

define( 'DISALLOW_FILE_EDIT', false );

Create Blank Page Templates


Keyboard Shortcuts

The shortcut Alt + Shift + H (Option + Control + H for Mac) actually is the most useful shortcut because it shows you all the keyboard shortcuts.

CTRL + S = Save 






Version 5.4

Disable Default Fullscreen Edit Mode

You’ll need to simply enter the following code in your WordPress theme’s functions.php file, or in a site-specific plugin. You can also use the custom code snippets plugin to add this code to your site without conflicts.

if (is_admin()) { 
    function jba_disable_editor_fullscreen_by_default() {
    $script = "jQuery( window ).load(function() { const isFullscreenMode = wp.data.select( 'core/edit-post' ).isFeatureActive( 'fullscreenMode' ); if ( isFullscreenMode ) { wp.data.dispatch( 'core/edit-post' ).toggleFeature( 'fullscreenMode' ); } });";
    wp_add_inline_script( 'wp-blocks', $script );
add_action( 'enqueue_block_editor_assets', 'jba_disable_editor_fullscreen_by_default' );



How To Disable XML-RPC

Edit your theme's functions.php file and add the following line...

// disable xmlrpc
add_filter('xmlrpc_enabled', '__return_false');

How To Deny Access To XML-RPC


Edit your your vhost file...

url.access-deny = ( "xmlrpc.php" )


Edit the .htaccess file...

<Files xmlrpc.php>
 order deny,allow
 deny from all


Edit your your vhost file...

location /xmlrpc.php {
   deny all;

How To Remove The WordPress Version Number

Edit your theme's functions.php and add the following line...

// remove version from head
remove_action('wp_head', 'wp_generator');
// remove version from rss
add_filter('the_generator', '__return_empty_string');
// remove version from scripts and styles
function shapeSpace_remove_version_scripts_styles($src) {
  if (strpos($src, 'ver=')) {
    $src = remove_query_arg('ver', $src);
  return $src;
add_filter('style_loader_src', 'shapeSpace_remove_version_scripts_styles', 9999);
add_filter('script_loader_src', 'shapeSpace_remove_version_scripts_styles', 9999);


MySQL Performance

Non Bitnami Server

sudo nano /etc/mysql/my.cnf
  performance_schema = OFF
sudo service mysql restart  (or  sudo systemctl restart mysql.service)


Bitnami Server

sudo nano /opt/bitnami/mysql/my.cnf
  performance_schema = OFF
sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart mysql

Remove Rest API From Header


Giving WordPress Its Own Directory

There are 2 ways to do this...

  1. without URL change (e.g. domain.com/)
  2. with URL change (domain.com/wordpress/)


Organise Media Library with Categories

Happy Files

Amazon Polly Audio


Google SiteKit




  1. Stay active on social media.
  2. Focus on building quality backlinks.
  3. Establish yourself as an expert in your niche.
  4. Experiment with different types of content.
  5. Improve your website's performance.

Ranking Factors

Yoast SEO Webmaster Tools

Google Analytics SEO Tips


Fluent SMTP

Royalty Free Images




Best Free Stock Photo Web Sites

Contact Form 7

How to Hide the Recaptcha box


Add field values for Dropdown, Checkboxes, and Multiple Choice fields

Fix Google reCAPTCHA


FIX: ERROR: Another update is currently in progress

It is an automatic lock to prevent simultaneous core updates. It will be gone after 15 minutes. If you don't want to wait, delete the record from options table – usually wp_options.

sudo -u ftpuser wp option delete core_updater.lock

Success: Deleted 'core_updater.lock' option.


Disable Automatic Updates

You can disable automatic updates in WordPress by adding this line of code in your wp-config.php file:

define( 'WP_AUTO_UPDATE_CORE', false );

Change Post Types

Rename the default 'Posts' to 'News' or something else

Performance Tweaks

Hidden Options


Host Google Services Locally

Google Analytics

Google Fonts

Remove Lots



Asset Cleanup

Remove Emoji Code

Add the following lines to the bottom of your theme's functions.php file...

remove_action( 'wp_head', 'print_emoji_detection_script', 7 );
remove_action( 'wp_print_styles', 'print_emoji_styles' );


Remove Type Attribute From JavaScript Tags

Add the following lines to the bottom of your theme's functions.php file...

    function() {
      add_theme_support( 'html5', [ 'script', 'style' ] );






curl -I --compressed <url>

Image Compression



Render Blocking





Cloudinary is the media management platform for web and mobile developers. An end-to-end solution for all your image and video needs.

Cloudinary Media Performance CDN - WordPress Plugin


Here is a quick list of the different types of caching we can identify:

  • Page cache: it happens on the server and stores the entire HTML of a page (as WP Rocket does);
  • Browser cache: it keeps storing the HTML but occurs on the browser;
  • Object cache: it stores database queries;
  • Bytecode cache: it's a PHP extension and stores precompiled script bytecode in the memory;
  • CDN cache: it occurs on the CDN-side and stores the HTML and all other static files (images, CSS and JS);
  • Reverse proxy cache: it happens on the server's side and stores all its responses to the client's server.

Browser Caching


KeyCDN Cache Enabler


WordPress Plugin

Content Delivery Network Pricing

KeyCDN - Getting Started

KeyCDN - WordPress CDN Integration with CDN Enabler

After installing, make sure all the pages get generated in the cache with this script - Use wget to scrape all URLs from a sitemap.xml

Check the bottom of the page's source code for the following...

<!-- Cache Enabler by KeyCDN @ 21.04.2020 22:17:15 (html) -->

W3 Total Cache

W3 Total Cache - Simple Introduction Tutorial

W3 Total Cache - Extensive Tutorial

W3 Total Cache - WordPress Plugin Page

How can I tell if if the cache plugin is working?

You can open the source code of a page (Google Chrome) View > Developer > View Source and scroll to the bottom. You should see an HTML-comment that states the site was cached by W3 Total Cache.

WP Rocket

WP Rocket No Cache - Disables WP Rocket’s page cache while preserving other optimization features.


HTTP/2 For Web Developers

Disable WP Cron

This is a bit of a unsure one, if you do this it will make other things moan and it's really not worth it...

define('DISABLE_WP_CRON', true);


UpTrends Web Site Speed Test

Varvy PageSpeed Tests

GTMetrix WordPress Web Site Analysis and Performance Tool

Google PageSpeed Tests


Oxygen Builder - Speed Up WordPress in 2019: How To Optimize Your Website & Make It Load Fast

WordPress Optimisation - Need to be < 3 secs load time

Accessibility Skip To Main Content

One of the earliest solutions in all of web accessibility was the "skip to main content" link, a same page link at the top of the page that enables users to skip past navigation links and go straight to the main content of the web page. Despite the fact that these links have been in use since the early 1990's, they actually aren't implemented well at all by browsers. They can be a huge benefit to sighted non-mousers (navigating by keyboard) but they don't work for these users in any browser other than Firefox and Internet Explorer, and they don't even work in IE unless link targets have tabindex="0".

<div id="skiplink-container">
     <a href="#content" class="skiplink">Skip to main content</a>
   <main role="main" id="content" tabindex="-1">
   content in here



How to add more Columns

The default columns block uses two columns, but you can add up to six columns in one column block.

To increase the number of columns, click somewhere in the column block but outside of the blocks within it. You'll see the settings in the sidebar switch from the Document settings to the Block settings revealing extra options. You can use the slider or the number input to adjust the number of columns from 2-6.



Fix Mixed Content Error on SSL

First, search and replace all references to non secure addresses...

Dashboard > Elementor > Tools > Replace URL > http://www.thisdomain.co.uk -- https://www.thisdomain.co.uk


Second, clear the Cache from WP Rocket or similar...

Dashboard > WP Rocket > Clear Cache




Customise For Mobile View

Divi > Theme Customizer link within your WordPress Dashboard. Next look for the Mobile Styles panel and open it to reveal the mobile styling options. You will notice 3 sections within the Mobile Styles panel: Tablet, Phone and Mobile Menu.

Remove Divi Menu Drop Shadow

#main-header, #main-header.et-fixed-header {
    -webkit-box-shadow: none!important;
    -moz-box-shadow: none!important;
    box-shadow: none!important;



WP Page Builder

WP Page Builder is a drag and drop WordPress plugin to create websites on the fly. Whether you need to build web pages from scratch or edit them thoroughly, WP Page Builder brings all essential site-building elements to a single place for you.

It is a completely front-end based tool with plenty of design options and tons of design elements. WP Page Builder is so lightweight, as a result, it takes remarkably less time than all other similar tools to create websites on WordPress. It gives the complete control over your website's design, so you can shape it the way you want. The plugin offers 30+ functional addons to bring any design you want for your site.





Oxygen Builder


Oxygen is a plugin that replaces the Theme system in WordPress. It allows you to build your own Templates for use in any page. It produces the most efficient code and the fastest loading web sites.






Plugins > Add New > Upload Plugin > Browse > Install Now




Slack - Oxygen Builder General Support

Oxygen - Official Support

Github - Oxygen Bugs and Features



Fluid Resposive Font Size Calculator


CSS clamp()

CSS clamp is a function that sets responsive unit sizes without any media queries. The function takes 3 parameters in this order:

  1. min - where to start scaling from.
  2. viewport width - the range determines how fast the min scales to the max based on the screen getting larger.
  3. max - when to stop scaling.


Oxygen > Templates > Edit Template > Manage > Stylesheets > Add Stylesheet > Clamp

/* Base */

html {
  font-size: 62.5%;

Add Clamp

Oxygen > Templates > Edit Template > Manage > Settings > Global Styles > Headings

H1 = clamp(3.2rem, calc(3.2rem + ((1vw - 0.32rem) * 1.6667)), 4.8rem)
H2 = clamp(2.8rem, calc(2.8rem + ((1vw - 0.32rem) * 1.0417)), 3.8rem)
H3 = clamp(2.4rem, calc(2.4rem + ((1vw - 0.32rem) * 0.8333)), 3.2rem)
H4 = clamp(2.2rem, calc(2.2rem + ((1vw - 0.32rem) * 0.625)), 2.8rem)
H5 = clamp(2rem, calc(2rem + ((1vw - 0.32rem) * 0.2083)), 2.2rem)
H6 = clamp(1.4rem, calc(1.4rem + ((1vw - 0.32rem) * 0.4167)), 1.8rem)

Oxygen > Templates > Edit Template > Manage > Settings > Global Styles > Body Text

Font Size = clamp(1.4rem, calc(1.4rem + ((1vw - 0.32rem) * 0.4167)), 1.8rem)


Sections and Columns

Oxygen > Templates > Edit Template > Manage > Settings > Global Styles > Sections and Columns

Section Container Padding

TOP = clamp(1rem, calc(1rem + ((1vw - 0.32rem) * 1.0417)), 2rem)
BOTTOM = clamp(1rem, calc(1rem + ((1vw - 0.32rem) * 1.0417)), 2rem)
LEFT = 2rem
RIGHT = 2rem

Columns Padding

Delete all values then change to 'none'.



SRCSET - The srcset attribute is giving the browser several different options to choose from depending on the size parameters. The browser will choose the smallest image that still matches the specified size parameters.

Learn how to register custom image sizes in WordPress and use SRCSET functionality in Oxygen for fully responsive images...







Hydrogen Pack - tweaks for Oxygen Builder

OxyNinja - Core Design and UI Set

OxyMade - Design Set and Framework for Oxygen Builder

Oxygen Builder Addons

Nimbufy - Bring any web page layout into Oxygen Builder

Multi-User Collaboration

How To Clone A Template

Under "Edit with Oxygen" you can click on shortcode and copy the content, then create a new template, click on shortcode, paste it and save it. Done.

Google Analytics


Simple Universal Google Analytics

Google Analytics Dashboard for WP (GADWP)

Ecommerce - Shopify



Ecommerce - WooCommerce

Setup Wizard

You can run the Setup Wizard, if you skipped it when installing WooCommerce. Go to: Help > Setup Wizard and select Setup Wizard.




Code Snippets


Show Product Categories on Theme Menus

Appearance > Menus > Screen Options (at top of page) > tick Product Categories

Show Product Categories on Shop Page

  1. Click on Appearance > Customize
  2. Then go to WooCommerce > Product Catalog
  3. Select show categories from Shop Page Display
  4. Click on Save Changes

Customise Breadcrumb


Accompanying Plugins

Request a Quote for WooCommerce

WooCommerce Quotation / Request For Quote Plugin

Request A Quote


WooCommerce cannot function properly without the first three shortcodes being somewhere on your site.

[woocommerce_cart] – shows the cart page
[woocommerce_checkout] – shows the checkout page
[woocommerce_my_account] – shows the user account page
[woocommerce_order_tracking] – shows the order tracking form


Custom Related Products


Google Products Integration



Command Line Updating Database

This will update the WooCommerce database using wp-cli on a WordPress Multisite install...

export WP_CLI_CACHE_DIR=/var/www/domain.co.uk/.wp-cli/cache; sudo -u www-data -E wp --path='/var/www/domain.co.uk/html/' --url='https://sub.domain.co.uk/' wc update

Media Queries Screen Sizes List

/* Set the background color of body to tan */
body {
  background-color: tan;

/* On screens that are 992px or less, set the background color to blue */
@media screen and (max-width: 992px) {
  body {
    background-color: blue;

/* On screens that are 600px or less, set the background color to olive */
@media screen and (max-width: 600px) {
  body {
    background-color: olive;

CSS Media Queries - More Examples

This is a list of the known screen sizes so that you can customise your CSS for mobile devices.

For example, a Google Pixel...

@media screen 
  and (device-width: 360px) 
  and (device-height: 640px) 
  and (-webkit-device-pixel-ratio: 3) 
  and (orientation: portrait) {



Test Pages

Resize you browser window and watch the magic happen...


<!DOCTYPE html>
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
body {
  background-color: yellow;
@media only screen and (max-width: 600px) {
  body {
    background-color: lightblue;
<h1>The @media Rule</h1>

Resize the browser window. When the width of this document is 600 pixels or less, the background-color is "lightblue", otherwise it is "yellow".


Menu Descriptions


Custom PHP Code

Paste the PHP code into your theme's file:

echo do_shortcode('[smartslider3 slider=1]');

Disable Avatars Gravatar

Every page load will try to contact gravatar.com to load a user's avatar. To speed things up, disable avatars...

Settings > Discussion > untick Show Avatars > Save Settings > Log Out

Make Twenty Nineteen Full Width


Responsive CSS Templates


Simple One Page Theme





Nice Themes



Google Fonts

Google Fonts Plugin

Host Google Fonts Locally

Security Scan


FTP Details



New tweak = put the chroot'd path to the base, content and plugin directories.

Also, use the 'ftpsockets' method.

/** FTP Tweaks */
define('FS_METHOD', 'ftpsockets');
define('FTP_SSL', 'false');
define('FTP_HOST', '123.456.789.0:21');
define('FTP_USER', 'username');
define('FTP_PASS', 'password');
define('FTP_BASE', '/html/');
define('FTP_CONTENT_DIR', '/html/wp-content/');
define('FTP_PLUGIN_DIR ', '/html/wp-content/plugins/');


/** FTP Tweaks */
define('FS_METHOD', 'ftpext');
define('FTP_HOST', 'ftp.example.org');
define('FTP_USER', 'username');
define('FTP_PASS', 'password');
define('FTP_BASE', '/path/to/wordpress/');

Full list of FTP variables...

define('FS_METHOD', 'ftpext');
define('FTP_BASE', '/path/to/wordpress/');
define('FTP_CONTENT_DIR', '/path/to/wordpress/wp-content/');
define('FTP_PLUGIN_DIR ', '/path/to/wordpress/wp-content/plugins/');
define('FTP_PUBKEY', '/home/username/.ssh/id_rsa.pub');
define('FTP_PRIKEY', '/home/username/.ssh/id_rsa');
define('FTP_USER', 'username');
define('FTP_PASS', 'password');
define('FTP_HOST', 'ftp.example.org');
define('FTP_SSL', false);


Version 5 Gutenberg Editor


About Page



WPscan - Open Source WordPress scanner

Attacking WordPress - /readme.html

Hack Check

11 Top Reasons Why WordPress Sites Get Hacked (and How to Prevent it)

How To Hack A WordPress Web Site

WordPress Releases


WordPress Releases and PHP Requirements

PHP Compatibility and WordPress Versions

WordPress with Lighttpd


need to add

  • add php repo
  • add mysql repo
  • add extra php modules for new 'site health' (php7.3-bcmath, php-imagick)


sudo -i
apt-get install lighttpd php-cgi php-mysql mysql-server
lighty-enable-mod fastcgi
lighty-enable-mod fastcgi-php
wget -O wordpress-latest.tar.gz http://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz
tar --strip-components=1 -xzvf wordpress-latest.tar.gz -C /var/www/domain.co.uk/html/
cd /var/www/domain.co.uk/html
mv wp-config-sample.php wp-config.php
chown -R ftpuser1:www-data .
find . -type f -exec chmod 664 {} +
find . -type d -exec chmod 775 {} +
chmod 660 wp-config.php



$HTTP["host"] =~ "domain.co.uk" {
  url.rewrite-if-not-file = (
  # Exclude directories
  "^/(wp-admin|wp-includes|wp-content|gallery2|.well-known)/(.*)" => "$0",
  # Exclude root php files
  "^/(.*.php)" => "$0",
  # Handle permalinks and feeds
  "^/(.*)$" => "/index.php/$1"

WordPress with NginX




sudo apt-get install nano
sudo apt-get install nginx
sudo apt-get install mysql-server
sudo mysql_secure_installation
sudo apt-get install php-fpm php-mysql
sudo apt-get install php-curl php-gd php-mbstring php-xml php-xmlrpc
sudo apt-get install curl


Tuning Performance

HTTP/2 with nginX



# Rewrites for Yoast SEO XML Sitemap
rewrite ^/sitemap_index.xml$ /index.php?sitemap=1 last;
rewrite ^/([^/]+?)-sitemap([0-9]+)?.xml$ /index.php?sitemap=$1&sitemap_n=$2 last;


Rest API Fix

This seems to be a NginX bug with the Gutenberg Editor and is part of the Tools > Site Health error "REST API is not working correctly."

Change all your lines with this...

try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php;

To this...

try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php$is_args$args;

Restart NginX and PHP FPM...

sudo systemctl restart php7.4-fpm.service nginx.service


Registration Page





WordPress Site Management


WordPress MultiSite


Network Activate Plugins

On a WordPress multisite, only Super Admins can install plugins. After the installation, super admins have these options...

  1. Network Activate – Using this option super admins can activate a plugin across the network.
  2. Activate – They can also activate a plugin for the main/root site.
  3. Individual Sites – Lastly they can allow individual site administrators to activate plugins themselves.

When you log in to your WordPress multisite's main site, you will be able to see two different plugins screen.

The first one is on the main admin sidebar. It is for plugins installed and available for activation on your main site.

The second plugins screen is located under My Sites » Network Admin » Plugins. This is where you will install new plugins and manage them for the entire network.


Add Plugins Menu for Child Sites in WordPress Multisite

To enable plugin’s menu for individual sites, you need to switch to Network Admin dashboard.

Switching to network admin dashboard

On the network admin dashboard, visit Settings » Network Settings. Scroll down to the bottom of the page and you will see the checkbox to enable plugins menu.


Show list of sites...

export WP_CLI_CACHE_DIR=/var/www/domain.co.uk/.wp-cli/cache; sudo -u www-data -E wp --path='/var/www/domain.co.uk/html/' site list

Show options for a multisite site...

export WP_CLI_CACHE_DIR=/var/www/domain.co.uk/.wp-cli/cache; sudo -u www-data -E wp --path='/var/www/domain.co.uk/html/' --url='http://mysubdomain.domain.co.uk/' option get siteurl

Change option for a multisite site...

export WP_CLI_CACHE_DIR=/var/www/domain.co.uk/.wp-cli/cache; sudo -u www-data -E wp --path='/var/www/domain.co.uk/html/' --url='http://mysubdomain.domain.co.uk/' option update siteurl 'http://mysubdomain.domain.com'

Help With Making Changes


Move Posts To Different Types

  • Posts to Pages
  • Pages to Posts
  • Default Post Type to Custom Post Type


Custom Post Types and Categories and Taxonomies



Import Posts with Images




HOWTO: Create Folders Within Media Library



HOWTO: Download Older Versions of WordPress Plugins


HOWTO: Increase PHP Memory Limit (UpdraftPlus Error)


HOWTO: Disable wp-cron.php WP_CRON

WordPress uses a file called wp-cron.php as a virtual cron job, or scheduled task in order to automate things like publishing scheduled posts, checking for plugin or theme updates, sending email notifications and more.

By default WordPress is set up to call wp-cron.php every time someone visits your WordPress website when a scheduled task is present, to basically ask "is it time to do anything yet?".

On low traffic sites this is perfectly fine, but when visitors roll in, checking multiple times for scheduled tasks can be very inefficient and lead to resource usage problems for your server, plus make your website load slower.

To fix this, change the following setting in your wp-config.php file...

define('DISABLE_WP_CRON', true);

Then, create a cron job to call the script...

crontab -e
@hourly cd /var/www/website.co.uk/html/ && sudo -u www-data php wp-cron.php


@hourly curl --silent https://www.website.co.uk/wp-cron.php?doing_wp_cron

Thanks - https://www.inmotionhosting.com/support/website/wordpress/disabling-the-wp-cronphp-in-wordpress

HOWTO: Disable WordPress User Account

  • Method 1 - change the user's role to 'No Role For This Site'
  • Method 2 - install the Disable Users Plugin and disable that user.

Thanks - https://9seeds.com/how-to-disable-wordpress-user-accounts/

Hide Page Title On Home Page Only

body.home header.entry-header {
  display: none;

HOWTO: Hide Page Title Per Basis


.page-id-1826 .entry-title {display: none;}

Thanks - https://premium.wpmudev.org/blog/wordpress-hide-page-title-or-post-title-on-a-case-by-case-basis/

HOWTO: Download Latest Version

wget -O wordpress-latest.tar.gz http://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz

HOWTO: Update Admin User Password Command Line

mysql -u root -p wordpress_database -e "UPDATE wp_users SET user_pass=MD5('MyNewPassword') WHERE ID='1';"

HOWTO: Extract WordPress Without First Directory

sudo tar --strip-components=1 -xzvf latest.tar.gz -C /path/to/directory/


sudo tar --strip-components=1 -xzvf latest.tar.gz -C /var/www/domain.com/html/

HOWTO: Correct Ownership And Permissions Of BITNAMI Wordpress Files

sudo chown -R daemon:daemon /opt/bitnami/apps/wordpress/htdocs
sudo find /opt/bitnami/apps/wordpress/htdocs -type d -exec chmod 755 {} \;
sudo find /opt/bitnami/apps/wordpress/htdocs -type f -exec chmod 644 {} \;
sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart apache
sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart php-fpm


HOWTO: Install Different PHP Modules on BITNAMI WordPress

Bitnami stacks already include a number of PHP modules, which are installed but not active. Before installing a new module, check that it is not already included. If it exists, simply enable it in the PHP configuration file.


The Imagick module is installed in Bitnami stacks, but is not enabled by default. To enable it, follow these steps:

Uncomment or add the following line to the /opt/bitnami/php/etc/php.ini file:


Restart the Apache server and/or the PHP-FPM service (if available):

sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart apache
sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh restart php-fpm


HOWTO: Correct Ownership And Permissions Of Wordpress Files

You need to make the user the FTP login and the group the user Apache or Lighttpd runs as...

sudo chown -R fred:www-data /var/www/fred.com/html/

Change to the correct directory...

cd /var/www/fred.com/html/

For secure permissions...

sudo find . -type f -exec chmod 644 {} +
sudo find . -type d -exec chmod 755 {} +
sudo chmod 640 wp-config.php

For relaxed permissions...

sudo find . -type f -exec chmod 664 {} +
sudo find . -type d -exec chmod 775 {} +
sudo chmod 660 wp-config.php

HOWTO: Disable Update Check For A Single Plugin

Open the main plugin file and change the version number to 9.9.9

HOWTO: Create MySQL Database

  1. log in to mysql
  2. create database
  3. set user and password and permissions
  4. log out of mysql
mysql -u root -p
create database wordpress;
GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE ON wordpress.* to 'wordpressuser'@'localhost' identified by 'mypassword';

HOWTO: Generate Salt Keys


HOWTO: Complete Configuration

cd /var/www/domain.com/html
sudo rm -iv index.html
sudo mv -v wp-config-sample.php wp-config.php
sudo nano wp-config.php
define('DB_NAME', 'wordpressdatabase');
define('DB_USER', 'wordpressuser');
define('DB_PASSWORD', 'mYPassWOrd');
define('DB_HOST', 'localhost');
/** Authentication Unique Keys and Salts.

Now load the web site in your web browser and complete installation.

HOWTO: Enable Updates Via SSH / SFTP

sudo aptitude install libssh2-php

Then, restart your web server software.

Thanks - https://snowulf.com/2010/06/29/wordpress-enabling-sshsftp-updates/

HOWTO: Update Via Command Line

WP CLI is a command line tool for managing your WordPress installation.




sudo add-apt-repository ppa:tiagohillebrandt/wp-cli
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get -s install wp-cli
sudo apt-get -y install wp-cli
sudo -u www-data wp --info


For use with Docker containers...

curl -O https://raw.githubusercontent.com/wp-cli/builds/gh-pages/phar/wp-cli.phar
chmod +x wp-cli.phar
mv wp-cli.phar wp
chown root:root wp
chmod 0700 wp
./wp --allow-root --info
./wp --allow-root plugin deactivate --all
./wp --allow-root user list


wp --info
wp core version
wp core check-update
wp core update
wp core update-db
wp core verify-checksums
wp theme update --all
wp plugin update --all
wp language core update
wp language theme --all update
wp language plugin --all update

Complete CLI Setup

# using wp command line tool to make a wordpress web site

# create directories and log files
sudo mkdir -p /var/www/www.domain.co.uk/{html,logs,.wp-cli/cache}
sudo touch /var/www/www.domain.co.uk/logs/{access,error}.log
sudo chmod g+w /var/www/www.domain.co.uk/logs/{access,error}.log
sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/www.domain.co.uk/

# change to working directory
cd /var/www/www.domain.co.uk/html/

# create environment variables
export WP_CLI_CACHE_DIR=/var/www/www.domain.co.uk/.wp-cli/cache

# check wp cli working
sudo -u www-data -E wp --info

# download the core wordpress files
sudo -u www-data -E wp core download --locale=en_GB

# check the core wordpress files
sudo -u www-data -E wp core verify-checksums

# create a wordpress mysql database
sudo mysql -u root -p -e "CREATE DATABASE wwwdomaincouk; CREATE USER 'wwwdomaincouk' IDENTIFIED BY 'SuperPassword'; GRANT ALL ON wwwdomaincouk.* TO 'wwwdomaincouk'; FLUSH PRIVILEGES;"

# create a wordpress configuration file
sudo -u www-data -E wp core config --dbname='wwwdomaincouk' --dbuser='wwwdomaincouk' --dbpass='SuperPassword' --dbhost='localhost' --dbprefix='wp_'

# complete the installation process
sudo -u www-data -E wp core install --url='http://www.domain.co.uk' --title='Web Site Name' --admin_user='joe.bloggs' --admin_password='MyGoodPassword' --admin_email='me@domain.co.uk'

# check web site working on command line and admin dashboard works
curl -I http://www.domain.co.uk

# check for updates
sudo -u www-data -E wp core version
sudo -u www-data -E wp core update
sudo -u www-data -E wp core update-db
sudo -u www-data -E wp plugin list
sudo -u www-data -E wp plugin update --all
sudo -u www-data -E wp theme list
sudo -u www-data -E wp theme update --all
sudo -u www-data -E wp language core list --status=active
sudo -u www-data -E wp language core update
sudo -u www-data -E wp language plugin list --all --status=active
sudo -u www-data -E wp language plugin update --all
sudo -u www-data -E wp language theme list --all --status=active
sudo -u www-data -E wp language theme update --all

# add new user
sudo -u www-data -E wp user create john.doe john.doe@domain.co.uk --role=administrator --first_name=John --last_name=Doe --nickname=John --display_name=John

# list users
sudo -u www-data -E wp user list

As Another User On Server

cd /path/to/wordpress/
sudo -u www-data -E wp --help
sudo -u www-data -E wp core --help
sudo -u www-data -E wp core check-update
sudo -u www-data -E wp core download
sudo -u www-data -E wp core is-installed
sudo -u www-data -E wp core update
sudo -u www-data -E wp core update-db
sudo -u www-data -E wp core verify-checksums
sudo -u www-data -E wp core version
sudo -u www-data -E wp plugin --help
sudo -u www-data -E wp plugin list
sudo -u www-data -E wp plugin update
sudo -u www-data -E wp plugin update --all
sudo -u www-data -E wp plugin status
sudo -u www-data -E wp plugin activate --all
sudo -u www-data -E wp plugin status
sudo -u www-data -E wp theme --help
sudo -u www-data -E wp theme list
sudo -u www-data -E wp theme update --all
sudo -u www-data -E wp theme list
sudo -u www-data -E wp theme delete twentysixteen
sudo -u www-data -E wp theme delete twentyseventeen
sudo -u www-data -E wp theme list
sudo -u www-data -E wp theme search Intentionally
sudo -u www-data -E wp theme install intentionally-blank
sudo -u www-data -E wp theme activate intentionally-blank
sudo -u www-data -E wp language plugin --all update
sudo -u www-data -E wp language theme --all update
sudo -u www-data -E wp language core update

Config List Settings

wp config get

Config List File Location

wp config path

Database Show Tables Sizes

wp db size --tables

Database Optimise

wp db optimize

Database Repair

wp db repair

Database Export

wp db export

Database Export With Filename

wp db export ./filename.sql

Database Search

wp db query "SELECT * FROM wp_options"

Plugin Install


wp plugin install wordpress-seo

Install and activate...

wp plugin install wordpress-seo --activate

Install and activate a particular version...

wp plugin install wordpress-seo --version=4.8 --activate

Install and activate multiple plugins...

wp plugin install advanced-custom-fields jetpack --activate

Install and activate from your own location...

wp plugin install https://www.domain.com/path/to/my/myplugin.zip --activate

Plugin Deactivate


wp plugin deactivate wordpress-seo

Deactivate all plugins (good for debugging a problem!)...

wp plugin deactivate --all

Plugin Update


wp plugin update wordpress-seo

Update all plugins...

wp plugin update --all

Site Blank

wp site empty

Site Blank and Delete Media Uploads

wp site empty --uploads

Theme Child Create

wp scaffold child-theme NEW-CHILD-SLUG --parent_theme=SLUG --theme_name=TITLE



Update Admin Email Address

wp option update admin_email 'me@domain.co.uk'
wp option update new_admin_email 'me@domain.co.uk'

User List

sudo -u www-data wp user list

User Reset Password

1. Move into the /wordpress directory and type

sudo -u www-data wp user list

to see all users. Find the ID of the user you'd like to update.

2. Then, update the user

sudo -u www-data wp user update 1 --user_pass=$UP3RstrongP4$$w0rd

replacing "1" with the id of the user you want to update.

Check A Post For Type

sudo -u www-data wp post get 230

Show WordPress URL

wp option get home
wp option get siteurl

Change WordPress URL

wp option update home 'http://example.com'
wp option update siteurl 'http://example.com'

Search and Replace and View Changes

sudo -u www-data wp search-replace 'Lorem ' 'Lorum ' --dry-run --report-changed-only --log

Search and Replace WordPress Database Change URL

sudo -u wpusername wp search-replace 'http://test.domain.co.uk' 'http://www.domain.co.uk' --dry-run
sudo -u wpusername wp search-replace 'http://test.domain.co.uk' 'http://www.domain.co.uk'

or for auto SSL sites...

sudo -u wpusername wp search-replace 'http://test.domain.co.uk' 'https://www.domain.co.uk' --dry-run
sudo -u wpusername wp search-replace 'http://test.domain.co.uk' 'https://www.domain.co.uk'

Export All Users

This will export all users to a CSV...

sudo -u daemon -E wp --path=/opt/bitnami/apps/wordpress/htdocs/2 user list --format=csv >user_list.csv

Block A User

  1. change their password
  2. change their role
  3. change their email address
export WP_CLI_CACHE_DIR=/var/www/www.domain.co.uk/.wp-cli/cache/
sudo -u www-data wp --path=/var/www/www.domain.co.uk/html/ user list
sudo -u www-data wp --path=/var/www/www.domain.co.uk/html/ user update 2 --user_pass=iphoh3Qu --skip-email
sudo -u www-data wp --path=/var/www/www.domain.co.uk/html/ user update 2 --role= --skip-email
sudo -u www-data wp --path=/var/www/www.domain.co.uk/html/ user update 2 --user_email=different.email@domain.co.uk --skip-email
sudo -u www-data wp --path=/var/www/www.domain.co.uk/html/ user list

Delete All Subscribers

For this trick, you have to combine 2 commands in to 1... generate the list of users + feed that result to the delete command...

$ wp user delete $(wp user list --role=subscriber --field=ID) --reassign=2

Do the Export All Users first!

This is an example from a Bitnami WordPress install, using the user 'daemon' and the full path for completeness...

sudo -u daemon -E wp --path=/opt/bitnami/apps/wordpress/htdocs/2 user delete $(sudo -u daemon -E wp --path=/opt/bitnami/apps/wordpress/htdocs/2 user list --role=subscriber --field=ID) --reassign=23

Perform Commands Remotely

WP-CLI accepts an --ssh=[<scheme>][<user>@]<host>[:<port>][<path>] global parameter for running a command against a remote WordPress install.

First, install wp-cli on your computer...

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:tiagohillebrandt/wp-cli
sudo apt-get -y install wp-cli
sudo -u www-data wp --info

Then, use a host entry in your ~/.ssh/config file for your server, then you can run this...

wp --ssh=host --user=jbloggs --path='/var/www/domain.com/html' core version


Migrate Copy Your Site


Convert to Multisite

wp core multisite-convert --subdomains
wp site list




wp backwpup start <job-id>


HOWTO: CREATE: Child Themes

  • FTP in to site
  • Navigate to wp-content | themes
  • Create a new folder for the child theme, for example twentyfifteen-child (where twentyfifteen is the name of your parent theme)
  • Create a text file named style.css
  • Copy and paste the text from Example 1 below in to the style.css file.

Example 1:

Theme Name: Example
Theme URI: http://example.co.uk
Description: Custom child theme
Author: Why me of course
Author URI: http://anotherexample.com
Template: theme-child
Version: 0.1

@import url("../theme/style.css");
  • Next alter the text so it matches the details of the website the parent theme.

Example 2:

Theme Name: twentyeleven-child
Theme URI: http://mywebsite.co.uk
Description: Custom child theme
Author: Fred Dibnah
Author URI: http://dibnah-inc.com
Template: twentyeleven 
Version: 0.1

@import url("../twentyeleven/style.css");
  • FTP style.css to wp-content | themes | twentyfifteen-child
  • In the WordPress control panel navigate to Appearance | Themes

HOWTO: REMOVE: Comment Box From An Existing Page

  • All Pages
  • Select the 'Quick Edit' option
  • Un-tick 'Allow Comments'


There are various methods to change the Site URL manually. Any of these methods will work and perform much the same function.

1. Edit wp-config.php

It is possible to set the site URL manually in the wp-config.php file.

Add these two lines to your wp-config.php, where "example.com" is the correct location of your site.


2. MySQL

Edit home and siteurl from the wp_options table using PHPMyAdmin or similar.

3. wp Command Line

A. You can use the official WP command line tool to alter the 'home', 'siteurl' options.

cd /path/to/wordpress/files
sudo -u user wp option get home
sudo -u user wp option get siteurl
sudo -u user wp option update home 'http://www.domain.co.uk'
sudo -u user wp option update siteurl 'http://www.domain.co.uk'


B. You can also use the command line to alter every part of the MySQL Database.

cd /path/to/wordpress/files
sudo -u user wp search-replace 'http://test.domain.co.uk' 'http://www.domain.co.uk' --dry-run
sudo -u user wp search-replace 'http://test.domain.co.uk' 'http://www.domain.co.uk'


HOWTO: htaccess Extra Security Tweaks

<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteRule ^index\.php$ - [L]
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule . /index.php [L]
# extra security tweaks
RewriteRule ^wp-admin/includes/ - [F,L]
RewriteRule !^wp-includes/ - [S=3]
RewriteRule ^wp-includes/[^/]+\.php$ - [F,L]
RewriteRule ^wp-includes/js/tinymce/langs/.+\.php - [F,L]
RewriteRule ^wp-includes/theme-compat/ - [F,L]


HOWTO: Disable All Plugins Via PHPMyAdmin Or MySQL

mysql> update wp_options set option_value = "a:0:{}" where option_name = 'active_plugins';

Thanks to - http://www.webhostinghero.com/manually-disable-wordpress-plugins/

HOWTO: WordPress Security


  1. WordFence
  2. reCAPTCHA
  3. Health Check
  4. Hide My WP WordPress and How to set up Hide my WP for Bitnami Servers

Password Protect Admin Folder Dashboard



Secure Your WordPress Website

Secure WordPress Theme

The Ultimate WordPress Security Guide

Security Updates Mailing List


HOWTO: WordPress Core: Add Page Last Modified Date

Add this code to your footer.php file...

Last modified: <?php the_modified_date(); ?>


HOWTO: WP-Members: Remove Powered By Link In Footer

Edit the file...


Search for 'powered by' and comment out both lines.

HOWTO: Deactivate all plugins when unable to access the administrative menus?

  • Via FTP or your host's file manager, navigate to the wp-contents folder (directory)
  • Via FTP or your host's file manager, rename the folder "plugins" to "plugins.hold"
  • Login to your WordPress administration menus (/wp-admin)
  • Via FTP or your host's file manager, rename "plugins.hold" back to "plugins"


DukaPress Shop Plugin


HOWTO: SET: The Home Page As A Static Page Instead Of Post

  • Create a new page, it does not have to be called home.
  • Settings --> Reading --> Front page displays --> change from 'Your latest posts' to 'A static page (select below) and use the drop down menu to set the page required.
  • Click 'Save Changes'.
  • Optional: If you still want a 'Posts page' posts that option is also allowed for.

HOWTO: SET: Menus As A Non-Clickable Top Level Item

This method only applies if you are using the default menu provided in WordPress.

First off do not create a page for the non-clickable as there is no need.

  • WP Menu --> Appearance --> Menus
  • Links widget (under Pages in the left hand widget)
  • In the URL box change the contents 'http://' to '#' (without the quotes)
  • Add a label
  • Click the 'Add to Menu' button
  • Click the 'Save Menu' button



Test Credit Card Numbers - http://www.worldpay.com/support/kb/bg/testandgolive/tgl5103.html

HOWTO: Permalinks (Page URL) - Alter

Go to:

Control Panel --> Settings --> Permalinks

Select 'Post name'

Finally click the 'Save Changes' button.

Or the more complicated method:

Add this to your .htaccess file...

# BEGIN WordPress
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteRule ^index\.php$ - [L]
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule . /index.php [L]
# END WordPress

Mobile Skin


HOWTO: REMOVE: 'Home' Button

The code you need to modify is located in the TwentyTen Theme's functions.php file.

$args['show_home'] = false;


Use wp-cli

wp yoast index

Indexing posts  100% [==============================] 0:00 / 0:00
Indexing terms  100% [==============================] 0:00 / 0:00
Indexing post type archives  100% [=================] 0:00 / 0:00
Indexing general objects  100% [====================] 0:00 / 0:00

To reset the index database, use this command ...

 wp yoast index --reindex


Fix Incorrect URL On Breadcrumbs Links After Site Move

  1. Install the Yoast Test Helper plugin, found here https://wordpress.org/plugins/yoast-test-helper/
  2. Go to Tools → Yoast Test
  3. Click the Reset Indexables tables and Migrations button
  4. Go to SEO → Tools
  5. Click the Start SEO Optimisation button and let it complete


How To Hide Breadcrumbs On Home Page

body.home #breadcrumbs {
  display: none;

PLUGIN: Coming Soon and Maintenance Mode


PLUGIN: All-In-One WP Migration

Size Limit Fix

// =================
// = Max File Size =
// =================
define( 'AI1WM_MAX_FILE_SIZE', 536870912 * 8 );

PLUGINS: Caching



Error: Minified React error #31

This seems to be a NginX bug with the Gutenberg Editor and is part of the Tools > Site Health error "REST API is not working correctly."

Change all your lines with this...

try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php;

To this...

try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php$is_args$args;

Restart NginX and PHP FPM...

sudo systemctl restart php7.4-fpm.service nginx.service


Error: Sorry, you are not allowed to edit posts in this post type

This is probably because it is a post type of revision...

sudo -u www-data wp post get 449
post_name             | 230-revision-v1
post_type             | revision

Error: changeset_post_save_failure

This is caused by a faulty PHP file in the WordPress installation and a possible MySQL database corruption.

Use wp command line to backup the database, then clear the database, then force upgrade the WP install.

sudo -i
sudo -u www-data -E wp db export wp_db_export_file.sql
chown www-data:www-data wp_db_export_file.sql
cp -av wp_db_export_file.sql ~/
cp -av wp-config.php ~/
sudo -u www-data -E wp db reset --yes
service mysql restart
sudo -u www-data -E wp db import wp_db_export_file.sql
sudo -u www-data -E wp db check
sudo -u www-data -E wp db tables
sudo -u www-data -E wp core update --force --locale=en_GB
sudo -u www-data -E wp core update-db
sudo -u www-data -E wp core verify-checksums --locale=en_GB

Error: Wordfence Update Error

If you see this error when updating Wordfence in the WordPress Dashboard...

Installing Plugin: Wordfence Security x.x.x
Downloading install package from https://downloads.wordpress.org/plugin/wordfence.x.x.x.zip…
Unpacking the package…
Could not copy file. wordfence/xxxxx/xxxxxx

You need to go to /wp-content/upgrade/ and delete all the wordfence folders/files in there. Chances are you won't be able to do that via FTP due to chown problems but will need shell access to your server to get rid of them. After that is done you will be able to upgrade without a problem.

cd /home/user/www/wp-content/
sudo rm -rfv upgrade/*

Thanks - https://wordpress.org/support/topic/update-error-v-517

Lighttpd Permalinks

$HTTP["host"] =~ "www\.domain\.uk\.com$" {
server.document-root = "/home/lighttpd/www.domain.uk.com/html"
server.errorlog = "/home/lighttpd/www.domain.uk.com/logs/error.log"
accesslog.filename = "/home/lighttpd/www.domain.uk.com/logs/access.log"
url.rewrite-if-not-file = ( "^/(wp-.+).*/?" => "$0", "^/keyword/([A-Za-z_0-9\-]+)/?$" => "/index.php?keyword=$1", "^/.*?(\?.*)?$" => "/index.php$1" )

Thanks - http://antesarkkinen.com/blog/wordpress-with-lighttpd-pretty-url-permalinks-and-jetpack/


Installing Plugin: Disable Author Pages 0.7
Downloading install package from https://downloads.wordpress.org/plugin/disable-author-pages.zip…
Unpacking the package…
The package could not be installed. PCLZIP_ERR_BAD_FORMAT (-10) : Unable to find End of Central Dir Record signature

WP E-Commerce and Gold Cart Plugin

To reinstall for the new version...

  1. Go here - http://getshopped.org/extend/premium-upgrades-files/
  2. Put in API Key and then you can download (as of writing) version 2.9.3 of the gold cart.
  3. Unpack the /gold_cart_files/ folder to your hard disk
  4. FTP in and upload that whole folder to /public_html/wp-content/plugins
  5. Log in to the WP Admin Panel
  6. Go to Plugins and Activate the plugin
  7. Go to the Dashboard section and click on Store Upgrades
  8. Fill in your Name and API Key to activate the plugin
  9. Go to the Store > Presentations section to change drop-down View to Grid View

Updates On Hosting With 1&1

The problem I was having was the update would start, and then just stop after a few seconds.

Then in my wp-content folder I would see a bunch of failed downloads. They were the update zip files with a 0 byte size.

The Solution:

Add the following line to your .htaccess file in the root directory of your blog.

AddType x-mapp-php5 .php

This will enable PHP version 5 + on your blog and then your update should take off.


White Screen of Death